Glucose and Hemoglobin AIC:
These are measurements of the body's sugar metabolism. Elevated values usually indicate diabetes mellitus.
Protein and Albumin:
These are blood proteins and are important
building blocks for tissue repair. Abnormalities
may be seen in kidney and liver disease and
inadequate dietary protein intake.
Calcium and Phosphorus:
These elements are useful in evaluating bone
metabolism and parathyroid gland function.
These are end products of protein metabolism and
are useful in evaluating kidney function.
This is a product of protein metabolism
eliminated by the kidney. Elevated values occur
most commonly with gout, but may be elevated in
kidney disease or with the use of diuretic
This enzyme may be abnormal in liver disease
and some types of bone disease.
These tests are used primarily to evaluate
liver and gall bladder disease.
Electrolytes (sodium/potassium/chloride/C02) :
These are important body chemicals which are
regulated closely by the kidneys. Abnormalities
may be produced by kidney disease, fluid and
electrolyte loss from vomiting and diarrhea,
dehydration, and certain medications.
White Blood Count:
White blood cells are responsible for fighting
infections. This value can be elevated in
bacterial infections, lowered in viral
infections, or abnormal due to conditions
affecting the bone marrow.
Hemoglobin and Hematocrit:
These are measurement of the red blood cell
count. Red blood cells transport oxygen to the
tissues with the help of iron. Reduced values
Platelets are small cell fragments produced by
the bone marrow and are responsible for blood
Total Cholesterol is a measure of all of the
different types of cholesterol of which there
are three main types: LDL is so called "bad"
cholesterol. Elevated values increase the risk
of coronary heart disease. HDL is so called
"good" cholesterol. It protects against
developing heart disease. Higher values of HDL
are desirable and low values can increase the
risk of heart disease. Triglycerides are related
to both heart disease as well as other
conditions such as diabetes.
PSA (prostate specific antigen):
This is a protein produced by the prostate
gland in men. It is useful in screening for
prostate cancer. It is also elevated if the
prostate is enlarged or has an infection.
This test evaluates the function of the
thyroid gland which may be under or overactive.
Helps determine the ability of the kidneys to
eliminate waste products of metabolism. It also
evaluates for other abnormalities of the urinary
tract such as infection or stones.
CRP (cardiac C-reactive protein) and
These are newer tests which evaluate for
vascular health and clotting tendencies.
Elevated values can indicate a higher risk of
heart disease and blood clots.