Common Laboratory Tests

Glucose and Hemoglobin AIC:

These are measurements of the body's sugar metabolism. Elevated values usually indicate diabetes mellitus.


Protein and Albumin

These are blood proteins and are important building blocks for tissue repair. Abnormalities may be seen in kidney and liver disease and inadequate dietary protein intake.


Calcium and Phosphorus

These elements are useful in evaluating bone metabolism and parathyroid gland function.


BUN and Creatinine:

These are end products of protein metabolism and are useful in evaluating kidney function.



Uric Acid:
This is a product of protein metabolism eliminated by the kidney. Elevated values occur most commonly with gout, but may be elevated in kidney disease or with the use of diuretic medications.


Alkaline Phosphatase:

This enzyme may be abnormal in liver disease and some types of bone disease.



These tests are used primarily to evaluate liver and gall bladder disease.


Electrolytes (sodium/potassium/chloride/C02)

These are important body chemicals which are regulated closely by the kidneys. Abnormalities may be produced by kidney disease, fluid and electrolyte loss from vomiting and diarrhea, dehydration, and certain medications.


White Blood Count:

White blood cells are responsible for fighting infections. This value can be elevated in bacterial infections, lowered in viral infections, or abnormal due to conditions affecting the bone marrow.


Hemoglobin and Hematocrit:

These are measurement of the red blood cell count. Red blood cells transport oxygen to the tissues with the help of iron. Reduced values indicate anemia.


Platelet Count:

Platelets are small cell fragments produced by the bone marrow and are responsible for blood clotting.



Serum Lipids:

Total Cholesterol is a measure of all of the different types of cholesterol of which there are three main types: LDL is so called "bad" cholesterol. Elevated values increase the risk of coronary heart disease. HDL is so called "good" cholesterol. It protects against developing heart disease. Higher values of HDL are desirable and low values can increase the risk of heart disease. Triglycerides are related to both heart disease as well as other conditions such as diabetes.


PSA (prostate specific antigen):

This is a protein produced by the prostate gland in men. It is useful in screening for prostate cancer. It is also elevated if the prostate is enlarged or has an infection.



This test evaluates the function of the thyroid gland which may be under or overactive.




Helps determine the ability of the kidneys to eliminate waste products of metabolism. It also evaluates for other abnormalities of the urinary tract such as infection or stones.



CRP (cardiac C-reactive protein) and Homocysteine:

These are newer tests which evaluate for vascular health and clotting tendencies. Elevated values can indicate a higher risk of heart disease and blood clots.



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